The election of assembly representatives through a constituency system, as it is done in the USA,
requires at first an electoral districting. Yet, even if the result is composed of population-balanced
constituencies, districting can have a strong influence on the results of the elections, and
politicians do not hesitate to use it in their favour. How can we objectively tell if a districting is
biased and should be invalid?
Having money and one's own room, having an artist father... Are those necessary conditions to
succeed as a woman artist? This is what can be asked when drawing up the list of
women who have marked the world of art through the centuries. Yesterday, their
passion was referred to as a pastime and they were assigned to domestic tasks in
priority. Even today women are underrepresented in many artistic professions.
For the past decades, France has undergone a marked diversification of penal sanctions (adjustments, probation, community service). This phenomenon is polarizing many political rifts, even though those “alternative sanctions” rarely substitute for jail, extending further the field of possible sentences. Moreover, their administrative application is not without its share of practical problems.
Electronic voting, either through voting machines or internet voting, already exists in professional or associative elections; and there are numerous questions about its use for political elections. What are the issues, the risks and benefits induced by this type of ballot?
Foreigners and strangers often frighten us: they are part of the unknown. To reduce the fear, let us first define the concept. Even if those two words tend to be confused (in French, their meaning is merged in the single word “étranger”), they represent different notions. The foreigner is a person who does not have the nationality of the country where they live and work; whereas the stranger is defined by their otherness, by being somebody who we are not familiar with.
The histories of bats and agaves are constantly crossing each other’s paths. The latter needs the former for reproduction, and the former needs the latter for food. But it isn’t just any pollinator and it isn’t just any food. Bats can visit a lot of plants each night, while carrying a big load of pollen. The nectar and the pollen of the agaves contain proteins with many essential amino acids, allowing the bats to feed exclusively from this food.
There’s a scar just on the middle of Buenos Aires, a long east-west line dividing the city in two parts: the cauterized one, up north; the bleeding one, down south. Its inhabitants have traditionally considered Rivadavia Avenue as the border between the city of the rich ones and the city of the poor ones. And there’s no need to build up a fence or dig a ditch, between the two sidewalks of this street there’s the biggest abyss societies build: money.
A quick glance at an actual globe should convince you that the Mercator projection deserves its poor reputation: Europe, the United States and Canada are way too big, and Antarctica should certainly not be bigger than South America and Africa combined. So, how come this map became so widespread? Why is it still used today, even in products such as Google Maps?
Spain is the second country in the world with the most forced disappearances, only behind Cambodia. After the death of general Franco in 1975, Spain initiated a transition towards a democratic government. Nevertheless, the wounds left by the civil war and the forty years of dictatorship continue to bleed despite the efforts to hide them.
If the genome is indeed the same in all cells, it is not expressed the same way: a set of supplementary materials will guide the cell, it will tell it which gene to consider in order to function. This annotating mechanism of the DNA is called epigenetics: what is above the genetics.